HAProxy is a free, very fast and reliable solution offering high availability, load balancing, and proxying for TCP, HTTP and HTTPS-based applications. It is particularly suited for web sites struggling under very high loads while needing persistence or Layer7 processing.
Supporting tens of thousands of connections is clearly realistic with todays hardware. Its mode of operation makes integrating it into existing architectures very easy and riskless, while still offering the possibility not to expose fragile web servers to the Net.
Refer to the following articles for more information on the listed topics:
On recent pfSense® versions 2 haproxy packages are available:
HAProxy package tracks the stable FreeBSD port currently using HAProxy 1.6.x.
HAProxy-devel package uses haproxy-devel from FreeBSD ports and loosely tracks HAProxy 1.7dev new features in the pfSense package are also first included in the HAProxy-devel then later copied over the HAProxy package.
For info about HAProxy 1.6 and 1.7 see: https://github.com/PiBa-NL/pfsense-haproxy-package-doc/wiki
See github log for recent changes:
version as of July 7, 2013: 1.4.24 pkg v 1.2
1.00 - A lot of changes and fixes:
Versioning changed - The package will show the version as “1.4.18 pkg v 1.0” where the first version is the version of the HAProxy binary, and the second is the package version.
HAProxy has been updated to 1.4.18, with separate compiled versions for 32 bit (i386) and 64 bit (amd64).
New Status Options - In addition to active and inactive, the options backup and disabled are available as a status for servers. These options translate directly to the equivalent options in HAProxy.
Monitor URI is now Optional - Having monitor URI as a required option prevented non-HTTP TCP frontends from operating properly.
XMLRPC Sync - Fixed two problem that prevented configuration sync from working correctly.
New Stats Options - Node name, node description, and auto-refresh are now available for the stats page.
New Load Balancing Options - The static-rr and leastconn load balancing options offered by HAProxy are not available options when creating frontends.
Ports Text Box - The ports box takes a comma separated list of ports but was limited to 10 characters. This has been raised to 500.
Global Advanced Options - Fixed a problem with the Advanced Options box on the globals tab that caused it to garble the text in both the HAProxy config and on display in the UI.
Default Tab - The default tab has been changed to the global tab rather than the frontends tab. Makes it easier to see the generated config after saving.
0.29 - option to output the automatically generated haproxy.cfg on the global settings tab.
0.28 - nbproc is now a setting on the global settings tab (number of processes in haproxy manual speak). local0 is now appended to the ip address of the remote syslog server.
0.27 - open files limit increased, check inter now an option. http close and forward for now working correctly when unchecked
0.26 - haproxy application version bumped to HA-Proxy version 1.3.22 2009/10/14
0.25 - advanced box now allows carriage returns to separate multiple options/directives
0.24 - Retries is no longer a required field
0.23 - Advanced box added which allows passing thru to the haproxy configuration file options or directives that are not supported by the GUI.
0.22 - httpclose is now an option
0.21 - forwardfor is now an option
0.19 - Remote logging feature added
0.18 - Ability to select multiple frontends added
0.16 - https mode added which will automatically adjust backend configuration
0.15 - Configuration synchronization added for CARP clusters
0.01 - Converted to a pfSense package
When editing a frontend, choose an External Address and the description refers to “the interface chosen above” but it isn’t possible to choose an interface. The only options for the address are Interface Address, Any, and any defined VIPs. I assume that the interface it chooses normally is the WAN, but this should be clarified.
Selecting Cancel when editing a frontend or server seems to use browser back; that means if returning to the previous page from a POST, it will ask to resubmit the data, which is not desirable.
When changes are applied, it appears that everything was successful whether it is or not. If something caused an invalid HAProxy config to be generated, HAProxy will not be stopped nor will it be restarted. There is no error message to indicate that this is the case and the Apply Changes button will disappear.
Most time-based options appear to be optional and specify “default” amounts but are actually required (and shouldn’t be).
Some unexpected behavior for those who are used to HAProxy configuration alone (see the differences section).
HAProxy has their own list of known bugs by branch and by version.
You can find a list of known issues with the HAProxy package on the pfSense bug tracker.
Things that could be improved¶
Configuration Sync should have X number of possible nodes, in the form of a list where additional nodes are added, rather than 3 static boxes.
An overhaul of the package to fully utilize HAProxy’s capabilities. It would be difficult to simply add in tabs for the other sections due to internal naming. In the package, the “frontends” set up in the Frontends tab are referred to in the configuration as backends. Including full support for frontends, backends, and listen sections would make it possible to use a lot more advanced features even without direct GUI support for them (through the use of the advanced pass thru box).
HAProxy has options for soft-restarts, which are useful in a high-availability environment. Some changes would be needed to the way the Apply Changes button works, or maybe make it optional. It needs more research.
Make all time fields accept the same time units that HAProxy does for the particular field.
Differences between this package and HAProxy used directly¶
HAProxy defines five main sections in its configuration.
global defines options that process-wide and often OS-specific.
defaults sets default parameters for all other sections following its declaration.
frontend describes a set of listening sockets accepting client connections.
backend describes a set of servers to which the proxy will connect to forward incoming connections.
listen defines a complete proxy with its frontend and backend parts combined in one section. It is generally useful for TCP-only traffic.
In the pfSense package, tabs exist to define “frontends” and “servers” but the resulting configuration is actually made up completely of listen sections. This is okay for the most part, but it does prevent advanced usages that need to refer to several backends and the like.
In HAProxy, a single server directive can be made with a blank port and it will listen on all the ports of the frontend that it is assigned to. The package’s GUI implies that this will be the case by leaving the port blank.
What actually gets generated instead is a single server directive for each port that the frontend is listening on. This is an important difference when the ports that are being listened on are not interchangeable. Example:
Define a front end for SMTP connections listening on ports 25 and 465. The server is listening on both of those ports, but 25 does not accept SSL/TLS and 465 does. When someone connects to the proxy on port 25, they should get connected to the server on port 25, and when they connect on 465, they get connected to the server on port 465.
In a standard HAProxy configuration where the frontend is set to listen on both ports and a single server directive is made with no port, it will operate the expected way.
In pfSense software, two server directives will be generated; one for each port. HAProxy will not send connections the expected way. It will loadbalance between them, regardless of whether the frontend and server ports match.
Therefore in pfSense software a separate frontend must be created for this, as they are essentially different services. Listen on port 25 and 2525, and it doesn’t matter whether someone connected on one port gets directed to the other, then they can be combined.
Splitting the servers up by port also means that a separate entry will exist for each one in the stats page, but the port will not be shown. In an HAProxy configuration where a single server directive has no ports and effectively handles multiple (due to inheriting from the frontend) it will only show up in the stats once.