UPnP & NAT-PMP¶
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) and NAT Port Mapping Protocol (NAT-PMP) are network services which allow software and devices to configure each other when attaching to a network. This includes automatically creating their own dynamic NAT port forwards and associated firewall rules.
The UPnP and NAT-PMP service on pfSense®, found at Services > UPnP & NAT-PMP, enables client PCs and other devices such as game consoles to automatically allow required inbound traffic. There are many popular programs and systems which support UPnP, such as Skype, uTorrent, mIRC, IM clients, Wii U, PlayStation 4, and XBox One. NAT- PMP is supported on Apple products.
UPnP employs the Simple Service Discovery Protocol (SSDP) for network discovery, which uses UDP port 1900. The UPnP daemon used by pfSense, miniupnpd , also uses TCP port 2189. When using a strict LAN ruleset, manually add firewall rules to allow access to these services, especially if the default LAN-to-any rule has been removed, or in bridged configurations. NAT-PMP is also handled by miniupnpd and uses UDP port 5351.
UPnP & NAT-PMP and IPv6¶
As of this writing, the UPnP and NAT-PMP service on current versions of pfSense supports IPv6, but client support is still spotty.
UPnP and NAT-PMP are a classic example of the “Security vs. Convenience” trade-off. By their very nature, these services are insecure. Any program on the network can allow in and forward any traffic – a potential security nightmare. On the other side, it can be a chore to enter and maintain NAT port forwards and their associated rules, especially when it comes to game consoles. There is a lot of guesswork and research involved to find the proper ports and settings, but UPnP just works and requires little administrative effort. Manual port forwards to accommodate these scenarios tend to be overly permissive, potentially exposing services that should not be open from the Internet. The port forwards are also always on, where UPnP may be temporary.
Access controls exist in the UPnP service configuration, which helps to lock down which devices are allowed to make alterations. Over and above the built-in access controls, further control may be exerted with firewall rules. When properly controlled, UPnP can also be a little more secure by allowing programs to pick and listen on random ports, instead of always having the same port open and forwarded.
To configure UPnP and NAT-PMP:
Navigate to Services > UPnP & NAT-PMP
Configure the options as follows:
- Enable UPnP & NAT-PMP
Master control for the entire service. When unchecked, all of the services on this page are disabled.
- Allow UPnP Port Mapping
When checked, UPnP is allowed.
- Allow NAT-PMP Port Mapping
When checked, NAT-PMP is allowed.
- External Interface
The WAN interface for outgoing traffic. This must be set to the WAN containing the default gateway. Only one External Interface may be selected.
The local interfaces where clients allowed to use UPnP/NAT-PMP reside. When a bridge is in use, only select the bridge interface with an IP address. Multiple interfaces may be selected.
- Download Speed
Maximum download speed reported to clients, in Kilobits per second.
- Upload Speed
Maximum upload speed reported to clients, in Kilobits per second.
- Override WAN Address
Selects an alternate interface IP address to use, such as a CARP or IP Alias Virtual IP address.
- Traffic Shaping Queue
The name of an ALTQ (not Limiter) traffic shaping queue in which traffic allowed through using UPnP will be placed.
Exercise caution when selecting this queue. UPnP is used by traffic such as game consoles, which need high priority, and also by file transfer clients which may need low priority.
- Log Packets
When checked, port forwards generated by UPnP/NAT-PMP will be set to log, so that each connection made will have an entry in the firewall logs, found at Status > System Logs, on the Firewall tab.
- Use System Uptime
By default, the UPnP daemon reports the service uptime when queried rather than the system uptime. Checking this option will cause it to report the actual system uptime instead.
- Deny Access by Default
When checked, UPnP will only allow access to clients matching the access rules. This is a more secure method of controlling the service, but as discussed above, is also less convenient.
- User Specified Permissions
These fields specify user-defined access rules. If the default-deny option is chosen, rules must be set to allow access. Additional rules may be added by clicking Add Rules are formulated using the following format:
<[allow|deny]> <[external port|port range]> <[internal IP|IP/CIDR]> <[internal port|port range]>
The UPnP and/or NAT-PMP service will be started automatically.
UPnP User Permission Examples¶
Deny access to external port
80 forwarding from everything on the LAN,
192.168.1.1, with a
/24 subnet, to local port
deny 80 192.168.1.1/24 80
192.168.1.10 to forward any unprivileged port:
allow 1024-65535 192.168.1.10 1024-65535
The status of the UPnP daemon process may be viewed at Status > Services. The Service Status page shows if the daemon is running or stopped, and allows the service to be stopped, started or restarted. Under normal circumstances, manually managing the daemon is not necessary.
A list of currently forwarded ports and clients, similar to Figure UPnP & NAT-PMP Status Screen Showing Client PCs With Forwarded Ports, may be viewed under Status > UPnP & NAT-PMP.
Most issues with UPnP tend to involve bridging. In this case it is important to have firewall rules allow UPnP on UDP port 1900. Since it is multicast traffic, the destination will be the broadcast address for the subnet, or in some cases making it any will be necessary. Consult the firewall logs at Status > System Logs, on the Firewall tab to see if traffic is being blocked. Pay particular attention to the destination address, as it may be different than expected.
Further trouble with game consoles may also be alleviated by switching to manual outbound NAT and enabling Static Port. See Static Port for more details.