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Hardware Tuning and Troubleshooting¶
The underlying operating system beneath pfSense® can be fine-tuned in many ways. A few of these tunables are available in pfSense under Advanced Options (See System Tunables Tab). Others are outlined in the FreeBSD main page tuning(7).
The default installation of pfSense software includes a well-rounded set of values tuned for good performance without being overly aggressive. There are cases where hardware or drivers necessitate changing values or a specific network workload requires changes to perform optimally. The hardware sold in the Netgate Store is tuned further since we have detailed knowledge of the hardware, removing the need to rely on more general assumptions.
Common changes along these lines for other hardware can be found in the documentation wiki page for Tuning and Troubleshooting Network Cards.
Changes to /boot/loader.conf.local require a firewall reboot to take effect.
A common problem encountered by users of commodity hardware is mbuf exhaustion.
For details on mbufs and monitoring mbuf usage, see Mbuf Clusters. If
the firewall runs out of mbufs, it can lead to a kernel panic and reboot under
certain network loads that exhaust all available network memory buffers. This is
more common with NICs that use multiple queues or are otherwise optimized for
performance over resource usage. Also, mbuf usage increases when the firewall is
using certain features such as Limiters To
increase the amount of mbufs available, add the following to
Additionally, cards may need other similar values raised such as
kern.ipc.nmbjumbop. In addition to the graphs mentioned above, check the
output of the command
netstat -m to verify if any areas are near exhaustion.
NIC Queue Count¶
For performance reasons some networks card types use multiple queues for
processing packets. On multi-core systems, usually a driver will want to use
one queue per CPU core. A few
cases exist where this can lead to
stability problems, which can be resolved by reducing the number of queues used
by the NIC. To reduce the number of queues, specify the new value in
/boot/loader.conf.local, such as:
The name of the sysctl OID varies by network card, but it is usually located in
the output of
sysctl -a, under
Another common issue is a NIC not properly supporting MSIX despite its claims. MSIX can be disabled by adding the following line to /boot/loader.conf.local: