Traffic shaping, or network Quality of Service (QoS), is a means of prioritizing network traffic. Without traffic shaping, packets are processed on a first in/first out basis by the firewall. QoS offers a means of prioritizing different types of traffic, ensuring that high priority services receive the bandwidth they need before lesser priority services.
For simplicity, the traffic shaping system in pfSense® software may also be referred to as the “shaper”, and the act of traffic shaping may be called “shaping”.
Traffic Shaping Types¶
There are two types of QoS available in pfSense software: ALTQ and Limiters.
The ALTQ framework is handled through
pf and is closely tied to network
card drivers. ALTQ can handle several types of schedulers and queue layouts. The
traffic shaper wizard configures ALTQ and gives firewall administrators the
ability to quickly configure QoS for common scenarios, and it allows custom
rules for more complex tasks. ALTQ is inefficient, however, so the maximum
potential throughput of a firewall is lowered significantly when it is active.
pfSense software also supports a separate shaper concept called Limiters. Limiters enforce hard bandwidth limits for a group or on a per-IP address or network basis. Inside of those bandwidth limits, limiters can also manage traffic priorities.
Traffic Shaping Basics¶
For administrators who are unfamiliar with traffic shaping, it is like a bouncer at an exclusive club. The VIPs (Very Important Packets) always make it in first and without waiting. The regular packets have to wait their turn in line, and “undesirable” packets can be kept out until after the real party is over. All the while, the club is kept at capacity and never overloaded. If more VIPs come along later, regular packets may need to be tossed out to keep the place from getting too crowded.
ALTQ shaping concepts can be counter-intuitive at first because the traffic has to be queued in a place where the operating system can control the flow of packets. Incoming traffic from the Internet going to a host on the LAN (downloading) is shaped leaving the LAN interface from the firewall. In the same manner, traffic going from the LAN to the Internet (uploading) is shaped when leaving the WAN.
For ALTQ, there are traffic shaping queues, and traffic shaping rules. The queues allocate bandwidth and priorities. Traffic shaping rules control how traffic is assigned into those queues. Rules for the shaper work the same as firewall rules, and allow the same matching characteristics. If a packet matches a shaper rule, it will be assigned into the queues specified by that rule. In pfSense software, shaper rules are mostly handled on the Floating tab using the Match action that assigns the traffic into queues, but rules on any interface can assign traffic into queues using the Pass action.
Limiter rules are handled differently. Limiters apply on regular pass rules and enforce their limits on the traffic as it enters and leaves an interface. Limiters almost always exist in pairs: One for the “download” direction traffic and one for the “upload” direction traffic.