Aliases define a group ports, hosts, or networks. Aliases can be referenced by firewall rules, port forwards, outbound NAT rules, and other places in the firewall GUI. Using aliases results in significantly shorter, self-documenting, and more manageable rulesets.
Do not confuse Aliases in this context with interface IP aliases, which are a means of adding additional IP addresses to a network interface.
Aliases are located at Firewall > Aliases. The page is divided into separate tabs for each type of alias: IP, Ports, URLs, and the All tab which shows every alias in one large list. When creating an alias, add it to any tab and it will be sorted to the correct location based on the type chosen.
The following types of aliases can be created:
|Host:||Aliases containing single IP addresses or hostnames|
|Network:||Aliases containing CIDR-masked lists of networks, hostnames, IP address ranges, or single IP addresses|
|Port:||These aliases contain lists of port numbers or ranges of ports for TCP or UDP.|
|URL:||The alias is built from the file at the specified URL but is read only a single time, and then becomes a normal network or port type alias.|
|URL Table:||The alias is built from the file at the specified URL but is updated by fetching the list from the URL periodically.|
Each alias type is described in more detail throughout this section.
Most aliases can be nested inside of other aliases so long as they are the same
type. For example, one alias can nest an alias containing web servers, an alias
containing mail servers, and a servers alias that contains both the web and mail
server aliases all together in one larger
Servers alias. URL Table aliases
cannot be nested.
Using Hostnames in Aliases¶
Hostnames can also be used in aliases. Any hostname can be entered into a host or network alias and it will be periodically resolved and updated by the firewall. If a hostname returns multiple IP addresses, all of the returned IP addresses are added to the alias. This is useful for tracking dynamic DNS entries to allow specific users into services from dynamic IP addresses.
This feature is not useful for allowing or disallowing users to large public web sites. Large and busy sites tend to have constantly rotating or random responses to DNS queries so the contents of the alias do not necessarily match up with the response a user will receive when they attempt to the resolve the same site name. It can work for smaller sites that have only a few servers and do not include incomplete sets of addresses in their DNS responses.
Mixing IPv4 and IPv6 Addresses in Aliases¶
IPv4 and IPv6 addresses can be mixed inside an alias. The firewall will use the appropriate type of addresses when the alias is referenced in a specific rule.
Alias Sizing Concerns¶
The total size of all tables must fit in roughly half the amount of Firewall Maximum Table Entries, which defaults to 200,000. If the maximum number of table entries is not large enough to contain all of the entries, the rules may fail to load. See Firewall Maximum Table Entries for information on changing that value. The aliases must fit in twice in the total area because of the way aliases are loaded and reloaded; The new list is loaded alongside the old list and then the old one is removed.
This value can be increased as much required, provided that the firewall contains sufficient RAM to hold the entries. The RAM usage is similar to, but less than, the state table but it is still safe to assume 1K per entry to be conservative.
To add an alias:
- Navigate to Firewall > Aliases
- Click Add
- Enter a Name for the alias. The name may only consist of the characters
- Enter a Description for the alias itself
- Select the Type for the alias. The various types are discussed throughout this section.
- Enter the type-specific information as needed. Each type has an data field and a description field for each entry.
To add new members to an alias, click Add at the bottom of the list of entries.
To remove members from an alias, click Delete at the end of the row to remove.
When the alias is complete, click Save to store the alias contents.
Each manually entered alias is limited to 5,000 members, but some browsers have trouble displaying or using the page with more than around 3,000 entries. For large numbers of entries, use a URL Table type alias which is capable of handling larger lists.
Host type aliases contain groups of IP addresses. Figure Example Hosts Alias shows an example of a host type alias used to contain a list of public web servers.
Other host type aliases can be nested inside this entry. Hostnames may also be used as entries, as explained previously.
Network type aliases contain groups of networks or IP address ranges. Single hosts can also be included in network aliases by selecting a /32 network mask for IPv4 addresses or a /128 prefix length for IPv6 addresses. Figure Example Network Alias shows an example of a network alias that is used later in this chapter.
Other host or network aliases can be nested inside this entry. Hostnames may also be used as entries, as explained previously.
When an alias entry contains an IPv4 range it is automatically translated by the firewall to an equivalent set of IPv4 CIDR networks that will exactly contain the provided range. As shown in Figure Example IP Range After, the range is expanded when the alias is saved, and the resulting list of IPv4 CIDR networks will match exactly the requested range, nothing more, nothing less.
Port type aliases contain groups of ports and port ranges. The protocol is not specified in the alias; The firewall rule where the alias is used will define the protocol as TCP, UDP, or both. Figure Example Ports Alias shows an example of a port type alias.
Enter another port-type alias name into the Port field to nest other port- type aliases inside this alias.
With a URL type alias, a URL is set which points to a text file that contains a list of entries. Multiple URLs may be entered. When Save is clicked, up to 3,000 entries from each URL are read from the file and imported into a network type alias.
If URL (IPs) is selected, then the URLs must contain IP address or CIDR masked network entries, and the firewall creates a network type alias from the contents.
If URL (Ports) is selected, then the URL must contain only port numbers or ranges, and the firewall creates a port type alias from the contents.
URL Table Aliases¶
A URL Table alias behaves in a significantly different way than the URL alias.
For starters, it does not import the contents of the file into a normal alias.
It downloads the contents of the file into a special location on the firewall
and uses the contents for what is called a
persist table, also known as a
file-based alias. The full contents of the alias are not directly editable in
the GUI, but can be viewed in the Tables viewer (See
Viewing the Contents of Tables).
For a URL Table alias, the drop-down list after the / controls how many days must pass before the contents of the alias are re-fetched from the stored URL by the firewall. When the time comes, the alias contents will be updated overnight by a script which re-fetches the data.
URL Table aliases can be quite large, containing many thousands of entries. Some customers use them to hold lists of all IP blocks in a given country or region, which can easily surpass 40,000 entries. The pfBlocker package uses this type of alias when handling country lists and other similar actions.
Currently, URL Table aliases are not capable of being nested.
If URL Table (IPs) is selected, then the URLs must contain IP address or CIDR masked network entries, and the firewall creates a network type alias from the contents.
If URL Table (Ports) is selected, then the URL must contain only port numbers or ranges, and the firewall creates a port type alias from the contents.
Bulk Import Network Aliases¶
Another method of importing multiple entries into an alias is to use the bulk import feature.
To use the import feature:
- Navigate to Firewall > Aliases
- Click Import
- Fill in the Alias Name and Description
- Enter the alias contents into the Aliases to import text area, one entry per line.
- Click Save
Common usage examples for this page include lists of IP addresses, networks, and blacklists. The list may contain IP addresses, CIDR masked networks, IP ranges, or port numbers. The firewall will attempt to determine the target alias type automatically.
The firewall imports items into a normal alias which can be edited later.
When a letter is typed into an input box which supports aliases, a list of matching aliases is displayed. Select the desired alias from the list, or type its name out completely.
Alias autocompletion is not case sensitive but it is restricted by type. For example, a Network or Host type alias will be listed in autocomplete for a Network field, but a Port alias will not; A port alias can be used in a port field, but a Network alias will not be in the list.
- Edit the firewall rule
- Select Single host or alias
- Then type the first letter of the desired alias: Enter
Wand the alias appears as shown.
Figure Autocompletion of Ports Alias shows the autocompletion of the ports alias configured as shown in Figure Example Ports Alias. If multiple aliases match the letter entered, all matching aliases of the appropriate type are listed. Click on the desired alias to select it.
Figure Example Rule Using Aliases shows the rule created using the
WebPorts aliases. This rule is on WAN, and allows any
source to the IP addresses defined in the
WebServers alias when using the
ports defined in the
Hovering the mouse cursor over an alias on the Firewall > Rules page shows a
tooltip displaying the contents of the alias with the descriptions included in
the alias. Figure Hovering Shows Hosts Contents shows this for the
WebServers alias and Figure Hovering Shows Ports Contents for
the ports alias.