Configuring NAT for VoIP Phones¶
If VoIP is being used, the default settings may not be correct in certain circumstances. The default settings handle the majority of scenarios, but depending on the specifics of a particular setup, changes may be necessary to obtain a working configuration.
The following sections will help to get local handsets working with a remote PBX. If the PBX is local and trying to communicate with a remote SIP trunk, see Configuring NAT for a VoIP PBX for more ideas.
Disable source port rewriting¶
By default pfSense® software rewrites the source port on all outbound traffic. This is necessary for proper NAT in some circumstances such as having multiple SIP phones behind a single public IP registering to a single external PBX. With a minority of providers, rewriting the source port of RTP can cause one way audio. In that case, setup manual outbound NAT and Static Port on all UDP traffic potentially with the exclusion of UDP 5060.
In old versions (pfSense 1.2.x and before) the firewall performed static port NAT on UDP 5060 traffic by default, but that is not desirable now because it breaks more scenarios than not currently. However, in cases where static port on UDP 5060 is required, configuring manual outbound NAT to perform static port NAT for udp/5060 will allow it to function.
Set Conservative state table optimization¶
The default UDP timeouts in pf are too low for some VoIP services. If phones mostly work, but randomly disconnect, set Firewall Optimization Options to Conservative under System > Advanced, Firewall/NAT tab.
A keep-alive or re-registration on the phone set for 20-30 seconds or so can also help, and is often a better solution.
Use the siproxd package¶
The Siproxd package is used only for deployments with local phones and a remote PBX where rewriting the source port breaks the ability to connect because the service will not work with rewritten source ports. In this very specific circumstance the siproxd package enables multiple phones to connect to a single outside server with a static source port of 5060.
Do not use this package if the PBX is local. Only use it if the upstream PBX strictly requires all phones to have a source port of 5060.
In very rare circumstances, scrubbing needs to be disabled under System > Advanced, Firewall/NAT tab. In most cases this should be left at the default setting (unchecked). Only change this setting if it has been determined it is necessary to do so. Some phones send malformed packets that will be silently dropped without scrub active (e.g. unfragmented packets that claim to be fragmented).